This brief provides policymakers and program implementers with evidence about the impact of gender dynamics on treatment access and adherence and the gender-related gaps in treatment research and programming. It also includes priority actions that can be taken to better address gender within treatment programming and raises questions for implementation science in order to achieve the global 90-90-90 goals (see Box 1). This brief draws from What Works For Women and Girls: Evidence for HIV Interventions (www.whatworksforwomen.org) and uses the WHO treatment cascade framework to identify and analyze major gender considerations in providing antiretroviral therapy to those living with HIV in low- and middle-income countries. It focuses on antiretroviral treatment access and adherence as well as the gender dynamics related to who gets tested and under which circumstances. The brief does not cover the full provision of “HIV care” defined in the cascade to also include prevention, detection and treatment of co-infections such as TB, as well as nutrition and social support.1 For more on gender dynamics within those topics and to read about the full methodology for the evidence review, please see www.whatworksforwomen.org.